Objective Type Questions: for Second Sessional of HAP


  1. What is the location of the  heart?

    • It is present in the “Mediastinum Region” i.e. on the diaphragm, near the midline of the thoracic cavity.

    • It is present in between the two lungs.

    •  About two thirds of the part of the heart is present to the left of the body’s midline

    • The superior broad part of the heart is base and the inferior pointed part is apex.

  2. Name three bones of the ear?

    • Ear is the organ of sense, which contain one of the smallest bones of the body these are,

      1. Incus.

      2. Malleus.

      3. Stapes.

  3. Name different papillae present on the Human tongue.

    • Tongue is the organ of taste, which contain three types of papillae which actually contains the taste buds responsible for sensation of the taste, they are as follows,

      1. Vallate papillae.

      2. Fungiform papillae.

      3. Filiform papillae.

  4. Name different types of tastes?

    • Sensation of the taste is called “Gustation” while the sense organ is “Tongue”.

    • There Five following type of main tastes,

      1. Sour.

      2. Sweet.

      3. Bitter.

      4. Salty.

      5. Umami.

    • All other tastes are a combination of the two or more of the five primary tastes or are associated with smell. 

  5. What is “Gustation"? Name the organ responsible for this?

    • Sensation of the taste is called “Gustation”.

    • The sense organ is “Tongue”.

  6. What is “Olfaction"? Name the organ responsible for this?

    • Sense of smell is called “Olfaction”.

    • The sense organ is “Nose”.

  7. Name the cranial nerve responsible for “Swallowing, relaxing the smooth muscles

    • Twelve pairs of cranial nerves arising from the brain.

    • Xth cranial nerve is called “Vagus Nerve”.

    • It is a mixed nerve that is sensory as well as a motor nerve.

    • It is responsible for many activities like swallowing, voice, relaxing the smooth muscles and other important functions.

  8. Which blood group is called “Universal Donor"? Why?

    • Blood Group O is called “Universal Donor”

    • The person produces both antibodies A & B hence can donate blood to all blood groups and hence is also called as “Universal Donor” 

    • However, The person should receive blood from a person having Blood Group O only.

  9. Which blood group is called “Universal Acceptor"? Why?

    • The RBCs of the person have both antigens A & B.

    • The person with Blood Group AB produces no antibodies hence shows no reaction with any blood group and hence called as “Universal Recipient”.

  10. What is “Megaloblastic Anaemia”?

    • Condition characterized by “Decreased Oxygen Carrying Capacity” of the blood is called Anaemia.

    • Maturation of RBCs takes place under the influence of Vitamin B12 and folic acid.

    • Deficiency of these vitamins leads to formation of abnormally large erythrocytes (megaloblasts).

    • These megaloblasts are fragile and have a lesser life span of 15-30 days.

    • Their early destruction causes anemia.

  11. Name different congenital blood disorders?

    •  Congenital blood disorders are blood related disorders present from birth.

    • In these diseases genetic abnormality leads to the synthesis of abnormal hemoglobin and increased red cell membrane friability, reducing cell oxygen-carrying capacity and life span. 

    • The most common forms are Sickle cell anemia and Thalassaemia.

  12. Draw a well labeled diagram of lymph node.

    • C:\Users\ADMIN\Desktop\satish remaining diagram\291213\_IMG_0013.jpg

  13. Draw a well labeled diagram of spleen.

  14. Name different layers of the heart.

    • Heart has three layers,

      1. Outermost: Pericardium.

      2. Middle: Myocardium.

      3. Innermost: Endocardium.

  15. What is “Lymph”? Give functions of the lymphatic system.

    • Lymph is clear watery fluid similar in composition to blood plasma without plasma proteins, present in lymph vessels.

    • Functions:

      1.  Lymphatic vessels drain excess interstitial fluid from tissue spaces and return it to the blood.

      2. Lymphatic vessels carry lipids and lipid soluble vitamins which are absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract to the blood.

      3.  The Lymphatic system is concerned with the production and maturation of lymphocytes responsible for immunity.

  16. What is a cardiac cycle?

    • All the events occurring in the heart with one heartbeat are called a cardiac cycle. 

    • In a minute about 70 cardiac cycles take place in adults. 

    • So the time required for one cardiac cycle is 0.8 sec.

    • Each cardiac cycle consists of

      1. Atrial systole: contraction of atria called atrial systole which lasts 0.1 sec.

      2. Ventricular systole: Contraction of ventricles is called  ventricular systole which lasts about 0.3 sec.

      3. Complete cardiac diastole: It is a relaxation period which lasts about 0.4 sec in which the atria and ventricles are relaxed. 

  17. Name components of the conduction system of the heart.

    • Different components of the conduction system of heart are as follows,,

      1. Sinoatrial Node (SA Node).

      2. Atrioventricular Node (AV Node).

      3. Bundle of His.

      4. Purkinje fibers.

  18. What is ECG?

    • The electrical activity within the heart can be detected by attaching the electrodes on the arms and legs (limb leads) and at six positions on the chest (Chest leads). 

    • Each limb and chest electrodes records slightly different electrical activity due to difference in its position, by comparing these activities with one another and with normal records, it is possible to determine 

      1. Abnormality in the conducting pathway.

      2. Enlargement of heart.

      3. If certain regions of the heart are damaged.

      4. The cause of chest pain.

    • The instrument used is an electrocardiograph and recording of electric signals is an electrocardiogram. 

    • The normal ECG shows three waves “P, QRS, T). 

  19. Name different types of WBCs?

    • They are termed as “White” as they don't contain “hemoglobin”.

    • They are classified as follows,

      1. Granulocytes:

        1. Neutrophiles.

        2. Eosinophiles.

        3. Basophiles.

      2. Agranulocytes:

      3. Monocytes.

      4. Lymphocytes.

  20. WBC is present normally in lesser amounts in blood but its concentration increases suddenly after an “Allergic Condition”.

    • Basophils:

      1. They are the largest type of granulocyte.

      2. TThey contain chemicals like histamine, heparin , serotonin and are involved in allergic responses viz. Asthma, hay fever and hypersensitivity.

      3. Normally their concentration is very less in circulation but increases significantly in allergic responses.

      4. Their lifespan is 3-10 days.

      5. NORMAL COUNT: 0.5-1%.

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